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Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Myopia: Features, Causes, Clinical Types, Comlications and Treatment of Myopia

Myopia is a type of refractive error of eye where parallel rays of light coming from infinity distance (6 m or more) gets focused in front of the retina.

Normal eye and myopia
Normal eye and Myopic eye

Features of Myopia:

1. Image of any object is formed in front of the retina.
2. Near vision is good but distant vision is bad.

Causes of myopia: 

1. Long eyeball.
2. Increased curvature of cornea:

 Increased corneal curvature
More bending of light
Image will form in front of retina

Clinical types of myopia:

1. Simple Myopia

  • Error < 6 D ( <25.5 mm of length of eyeball)
  • Usually does not progresss after 21 years of age
  • Usually no family history
  • No pathological change in the retina

2. Pathological Myopia

  • Error > 6 D ( >25.5 mm of eyeball)
  • May progress after 21 years
  • Usually have family history
  • Pathological changes in the retina occur (Retinal cataract)

Complications of Myopia:

1. Squint
2. Retinal detachment
3. Macular degeneration
4. Complicated cataract
5. Posterior staphyloma
6. Glaucoma
7. Amblyopia or "Lazy Eye"

Complications may also arise due to surgery to correct myopia:
1. Clouding of the cornea (although this tends to improve quickly)
2. Glare around bright lights
3. Over-correction (leading to long-sightedness) or under-correction
4. Infection of the cornea
5. Increased pressure in the eye (glaucoma)
6. Puncture of the cornea or eyeball
7. Retinal detachment (when the retinal lining separates from the back wall of the eye), which requires urgent surgical treatment to prevent permanent loss of vision

Treatment of Myopia:

1. Spectacles (concave spherical)

2. Contact Lens

Correction of Myopia by glasses and contact lenses
Correction of Myopia by glasses and contact lenses

3. LASIK surgery (Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis)

That's all for today!
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