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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Can You Gain Muscle Weight Without Getting Fat?
By Vince DelMonte
There are two common fitness goals - to gain muscle mass and to lose body fat.  Unfortunately, for the most part, the two goals are at opposite ends of the spectrum.

Building muscle mass is going to require you to take in a surplus of calories because, well, let's face it, you can't build muscle out of nothing (unless of course you have some chemical help going on).

Losing fat mass on the other hand is going to require you to be in a negative calorie balance because that is what will get your body burning off additional body fat as fuel for its tissues.

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Arthritis Hurts…But Can It Kill?

It may seem that your knees ache so much that it’s not physically possible to “kick the bucket.” However, emerging research shows that more and more deaths are a direct result of arthritis.

A Serious Problem
Arthritis is already known to be the most prevalent chronic disease in the world –affecting over half of all adults over the age of 55. More and more scientists are sounding the alarm over hospitalizations and premature deaths due to arthritis.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Why Weight Lifting Is An Exercise That Delivers Top Health Benefits

By Vince DelMonte

While some individuals are strictly interested in obtaining muscle for aesthetics, for most people, this isn’t an interest. Instead, you’re more interested in knowing what health benefits weight lifting will have for you…

Far too many people overlook the many health and fitness benefits that weight training has to offer, and because of this, experience problems down the road with their body such as decreased bone density, a slowed metabolic rate, increased stress levels and other negative consequences that are associated with constant stress.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Mobile phones – we can’t live without them! Can we now? After all they are so nice, shiny and super clean all the time! It's like they can't harm us in any way!
But you couldn’t be more wrong! And after reading the following article some of you might just want to through your mobile phone in the bin!
Here is the fact: One in six mobile phones carry E. coli bacteria – which for your information is a type of fecal bacteria that come from human and animal feces!

Monday, October 17, 2011

There have been rumours going on for quite some time about chicken wings causing cancer, particularly in women.

I actually didn't know about this rumor till today. I was going through my facebook and I saw this post by one of my friends:

Friday, October 14, 2011

Take a Walk, Cure Arthritis

Arthritis pain can be so bad that a walk to the bathroom can seem like struggling through a bed of nails –if only the nails were being hammered into your knees and back!

Your body tells you to “sit down and rest” between every step. But that’s some horrible advice, no matter how well intentioned it may be.

The Real Future of Arthritis
Many doctors predict that technological advances like cutting edge medications and futuristic machines will someday emerge as the “cure” for arthritis. Unfortunately, no amount of money or science is going to take care of this pesky $120 billion dollar arthritis problem out nation struggles with.

After all, we already have prevention and a cure. Best of all, it doesn’t require a single dollar, a prescription, or even a doctor’s appointment.

What’s this amazing arthritis treatment that has arthritis scientists jumping up and down in excitement? Walking!

Walk It Off
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health recently looked at a group of people with knee osteoarthritis who weren’t yet in serious pain. Those that did light exercise for just 20 minutes per day completely put the brakes on arthritis.

What if you already have arthritis? Walking can change your life too.

A study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine found that a walking program reduced arthritis pain by nearly one third. That blows away the results from arthritis medications that tend to modestly improve pain levels by 10 percent or less.

Walk This Way
Arthritis can make walking an uphill battle. Fortunately, you don’t have to walk to China and back to see a very big difference.

Here’s how to do it:

Start S-L-O-W: The transition from couch potato to power walker is a dramatic one. Your walking program should be like a beat up 67’ Chevy: start slowly, gradually increasing the speed, and go strong after a thorough warm up.

Record, Rinse, Repeat: Just “going for a walk” may work for some, but your enthusiasm will quickly sputter out. Setting goals and benchmarks will keep you on track and make sure you stick to this life-altering change.

Don’t Be Afraid: To breathe, sweat and struggle. As long as you can pass the “talk test” (being able to carry on a conversation while exercising), you’re at the right intensity level.

Expect Miracles…Eventually: There’s no question that daily light exercise turns the tables on arthritis. But it’s going to take more than a few laps around the track to feel a difference. Stick with it and the results will come.

Run, Don’t Walk, To Buy This Incredible Program
Walking works. But for those with painful or stubborn arthritis, it’s not nearly enough.

That’s why there’s the Blue Heron Guide for HealingArthritis. It’s a complete step-by-step approach to reversing arthritis that’s backed by the latest science.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

4 Superfoods that KO Arthritis Pain in a Flash

It’s well understood that your diet plays a crucial role in your arthritis pain. While the same foods that give you a trim waist and clear arteries will likely relieve your pain, a few foods stand head and shoulders above the rest.

Add these 4 pain-fighting superfoods to your diet and you’ll probably feel a difference a few minutes after your last bite.


Blueberries are overflowing with nutrients that KO arthritis pain. Yummy blueberries are especially rich in crucial compounds called antioxidants. Antioxidants are your body’s bodyguards that protect your joints from damage. If you don’t get enough of them, expect epic arthritis flare-ups to take hold.

In fact, a USDA commissioned study found that wild blueberries have more antioxidants than any other food on planet Earth! Research at the University of Prince Edward Island recently found that eating blueberries significantly reduced arthritis pain.

Monday, October 10, 2011

Clinical use / Indication of aspirin:

1. Relieve mild to moderate pain:

·         Headache(non-visceral pain)
·         Myalgia (non-visceral pain)·        
Arthalgia (non-visceral pain)

How does aspirin reduce fever? Anti-pyretic action of aspirin:

There are 3 ways aspirin combats fever

1. The function of prostaglandin E2 (PG E2) is to elevate the hypothalamic set point of temperature, which means it causes an increase in body temperatue and thus fever.

Aspirin is an NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). All NSAIDs inhibits the cycloxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) enzyme (by irreversible non-competetive inhibition) which is required for the synthesis of prostaglandin E2.

So, since no prostaglandin, particularly prostaglandin E2 in this case, is produced the temperature point in hypothalamus goes back to normal and thus the body temperature becomes normal again.

How does aspirin prevent thromboembolism / heart attack? Antiplatelete action of aspirin:

A thrombus is formed due to platelete aggregation. And platelete aggragation is mediated by a prostaglandin called thromboxane A2 (TX A2). As aspirin inhibits prostaglandin systhesis by inhibiting the COX enzyme, no thromboxane is produced.

So since there is no TX A2, there is no platelete aggragation and no thrombus or embolus formation.

This is particularly important in heart patients suffering from myocardial infarction. They have to take 75 mg of aspirin for life long to prevent myocardial infarction.

How does aspirin prevent pain? Analgesic action of aspirin:

There are two mechanism by which aspirin combats pain:

1. Centrally aspirin acts at subcortical sites like thalamus and inhibits the pain stimuli, thus causing analgesia.

How does aspirin prevent inflammation? Anti-inflammatory action of aspirin

There are two ways aspirin combat inflammation:

1. Prostaglandin is the main mediator of inflammation. Aspirin inhibits the synthesis of this prostaglandin by inhibiting the cycloxygenase (COX) enzyme. See the diagram below.

Aspirin is a non-selective, non-competetive irrversible cycloxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitor. Even so it is about 160 times more specific to COX 1 than COX 2. 

The COX enzymes are responsible for the systhesis of prostaglandins (PG) which are the mediators of inflammation, pain, fever, platelet aggregation. 

So aspirin acts by inhibiting the prostaglandin synthesis.

Introduction to aspirin – an essential medicine:

Aspirin is a weak organic acid – acetylsalicylic acid. It is obtained naturally from the Willow bark which contains Salicin. It can also be produced synthetically.

It is mainly a non-opioid analgesic and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and is the initial choice of drug in the treatment of articular (arthritis) and musculoskeletal disorders.

Chief pharmacological actions of aspirin:

1. Anti-inflammatory action (Peripheral nervous system effect)
2. Analgesic action (pain-killer) (Both Central and Peripheral nervous system effect)
3. Anti-pyretic action (reduces fever) (Both Central and Peripheral nervous system effect)
4. Anti-platelet action (prevents platelet aggregation) ( Peripheral nervous system effect)

Other effects of aspirin:

Respiratory system
1. Stimulates respiratory center so increases the repiration rate
2. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation
1. Mild reversible hepatic damage
2. Increase SGPT and SGOT level
3. Reye’s syndrome
Endocrine system
1. Increase steroid synthesis
2. Thyroid suppression by decreasing iodine uptake
3. Prolongs the labor period
Haematological effect
Large dose (>5g/day) cause inhibition of prothrombin synthesis in the liver.
Gastrointestinal tract
1. Gastric irritation                                                               
Ulcer formation
Bleeding leading to iron deficiency anaemia
2. Nausea and vomiting by stimulation of chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)
3. Reduces the cytoprotective role of PG PG E2 and PG I2 ie decreases mucous production and increases the hydrochloric acid secretion
Renal system
Decreases the renal blood flow leading to renal salt and water retention leading to renal damage.

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Thursday, October 6, 2011

Need to buy ORS?

Don't have oral rehydration solution packet (ORS) at home?  Click here  to buy one from Amazon or follow the instructions below and make your own oral rehydration solution packet (ORS) at home.
Recipe for Making a 1 litre ORS solution using Sugar, Salt and Water
  1. Clean Water - 1 litre - 5 cupfuls (each cup about 200 ml.)
  2. Sugar - Six level teaspoons
  3. Salt - Half level teaspoon
  4. Stir the mixture till the sugar dissolves.

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Laboratory diagnosis of aplastic anaemia:

1. Routine haematological tests:

                -Haemoglobin-Reduced, maybe even less than 3g/dl.
                -MCV, MCH, MCHC are all normal
                -Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is high(60-100 mm In first hour)
                -Peripheral blood film:
                                Leishmen stain:
                                                RBC: Normocytic normochromic with anisocytosis and poikilocytosis

Clinical presentation of aplastic anaemia:

1. Due to reduced RBC count(anaemia):
                Fatigue, Weakness, Pallor, Palpitation, Dyspnoea, Effort Angina

2. Due to reduced WBC count(leucopenia)
                Sore throat, ulceration of mouth and pharynx, malaise, fever, chills, chronic skin infection, recurrent chest infection

Aplastic anaemia

A disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia resulting from aplasia of the bone marrow.

In reality aplasia of the bone marrow is absent and hypoplasia occurs.

Laboratory diagnosis of pernicious anaemia:

 Same as the laboratory diagnosis of megaloblastic anaemia plus the following:

Special tests for pernicious anaemia:

1. Gastric juice analysis.
2. Presence of anti-parietal cell antibody in the serum.
3. Presence of anti-intrinsic factor antibody in the serum.
4. Serum gastrin level
5. Pertagastrin fast acholrhydria

Treatment of pernicious anaemia:

Pathogenesis of pernicious anaemia:

Occurs due to gastric atrophy which in turn occurs due to genetic and autoimmune causes:

Pernicious anaemia / Addisonian Pernicious Anaemia:

A vitamin B12 deficiency megaloblastic anaemia which occurs due to deficiency of intrinsic factor of Castle due to gastric atrophy, characterized by one or combination of macrocytic anaemia, glossitis and nervous system involvement.

What is Schilling test?

It is a test to determine the cause of vitamine B12 defeciency. It is done by the measurement of urinary excretion of radio-isotope labeled oral vitamine B12 with and without the administration of intrinsic factor of Castle.

What is hypersegment neutrophil?

When more than 5% neutrophils have 5 lobed nucleus. Or if there is a single 6 lobed or more neutrophil in the peripheral blood then it is considered as hypersegmented neutrophil.