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Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Bronchiectasis is abnormal and permanent dilatation of the central and medium-sized airways. This leads to impaired clearance of bronchial secretions with secondary bacterial infection and bronchial inflammation.

Changes in bronchiectasis
Changes in bronchiectasis



Causes of bronchiectasis:

In children:

1. Cystic fibrosis
Changes in airway
2. Congenital ciliary dysfunction syndrome, also known as Kartagener's syndrome or Immotile ciliary syndrome.

In young adults:

1. Pulmonary tuberculosis
2. Inhalation of foreign body

In adults:

1. Pulmonary tuberculosis
2. Ciliary dysfunction syndrome
3. As a complication of Pneumonia, where there is retention of sputum leading to lobar collapse and bronchiectasis.

Myopia is a type of refractive error of eye where parallel rays of light coming from infinity distance (6 m or more) gets focused in front of the retina.

Normal eye and myopia
Normal eye and Myopic eye

Features of Myopia:

1. Image of any object is formed in front of the retina.
2. Near vision is good but distant vision is bad.