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Saturday, February 23, 2013

Hepatitis Virus: Classification, Preventive and Control measures for hepatitis and Comparison between different hepatitis virus

Viral hepatitis is a common cause of jaundice and must be considered in anyone presenting with hepatitis blood test (high aminotransaminase).

All hepatitis virus cause illness and similar clinical and pathological features and are frequently an-icteric or even asymptomatic.

They differ in their tendency to cause acute and chronic infection.


Classification of hepatitis virus:

A. Hepatotrophic / Classical virus:

Five commonly medically important virus are described as hepatotrophic virus as their main site of infection is liver. They are:

Structure of Hepatitis B virus
2.    Hepatitis B virus
3.    Hepatitis C virus
4.    Hepatitis D virus
5.    Hepatitis E virus
6.    Hepatitis G virus

B. Other viruses responsible for hepatitis:


1.    Epstein-Barr virus
2.    Cytomegalo virus
3.    Yellow fever virus
4.    Herpes virus
5.    Rubella virus
6.    Adeno virus

Preventive and control measures for hepatitis:

1.   Improve hygiene and sanitation
Maintain good personal hygiene

2. Creation of awareness by health education

3. Passive immunization by: 
          a. HAV  normal Ig
          b. HBV hyperimmune serum

      4.  Active immunization against HBV infection

Comparison between different hepatitis virus:

Points
HAV
HBV
HCV
HDV
HEV
Group/ Family
Picorna/Entero
Hepadna
Flavi-virus
Incomplete virus
Calcivirus
Type of Nucleic Acid
RNA
DNA
RNA
RNA
RNA
Size
27 nm
42 nm
30-38 nm
35 nm
27 nm
Incubation Period
2-4 weeks
4- 20 weeks
2-26 weeks
6-9 weeks
3-8 weeks
Spread/
Mode Of Transmission
Faeco-oral, Faeces, Saliva, Food
Blood, saliva, sexual, vertical
Blood, saliva, sexual
Blood, sexual, vertical
Faeco-oral, faeces, food
Chronic Infection
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
Vaccine available
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Immunoglobulin available
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Age
Children
All age
All age
All age
Adult
Complication
Fulminant hepatitis (1-4%)
Chr. Hepatitis, CIRRHOSIS, HCC (5-10%)
Chr. Hepatits, cirrhosis, HCC (30-50%)
-------------
Fulminant hepatitis in few cases
Prevention
1.    Active
2.    Passive

1. Vaccine
2. Immune serum globulin

1. Vaccine
2.Hyperimmune serum globulin

No

Prevented by hep B vaccination

No


To know about Hepatitis A virus read:

That's all for today!
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