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Saturday, January 28, 2012

I. What is chickn pox?

Chicken Pox Rashes caused by Varicella Zoster Virus
Chicken Pox or Varicella is an acute, highly infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). It is characterised by vesicular rash that may be accompanied by fever and malaise.


II. Epidemiology of Chickenpox

A. Occurence of Chickenpox

Chickenpox occurs world-wide in both epidemic and endemic forms.

B. Ecological Triad of Chickenpox

1. AGENT:

Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) - VZV is a DNA virus - member of the family herpes virus.

2. HOST:

Humans are the natural host.
  • Age: Children under 10 years suffer more, where the disease is mild and self-limiting. A number of infections occur in adulthood which is called Shingles and is usually severe.
  • Sex-Both sexes are susceptible.
  • Immunity: One attack of chickenpox usually gives life-long immunity

3. ENVIRONMENT:

  • Season: Chickenpox occurs in all seasons. In temperate climates it is common in winter, but in the tropics it is common in summer.
  • Overcrowdin favours the spread of this disease.

C. Natural histroy of Chickenpox:

1. RESERVOIR (SOURCE OF INFECTION):

Usually a case of chickenpox.

2. INFECTIVE MATERIALS:

  • Oropharyngeal secretions
  • Lesions of skin and mucosa

3. INFECTIOUS PERIOD:

1-2 days before the appearance of rahs and 4-5 days after the appearance of the first crop of vesicles.

4. MODE OF TRANSMISSION:

  • Respiratory droplet
  • Direct contact

5. INCUBATION PERIOD: 2-3 WEEKS


III. Clinical Features of Chickenpox:

Rashes in Chicken Pox

A. Prodromal symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Malaise
  • Anorexia

B. First Sign:

Stages of Chicken Pox
  • Appearance of a characteristics rash in crops on the trunk on 2nd day of illness
  • The rahs spreads to the head and extremities
  • The rash will be found in different stages: Macules > Papules > Vesicles > Crusts.

C. Itching is marked.


IV. Diagnosis of Chickenpox:

A. Clinical of chickenpox:

The disease is usually recognized by the characteristic clinical sings mentioned above.

B. Laboratory Diagnosis of chickenpox:

  • Cytology and Electron Microscopy of vesicular fluid or scraping. This may reveal inclusions, giant cells and virus particles.
  • Detection of varicella specific antigen in vesicular fluid with immunoflourescence of monoclonal antibodies.
  • Serelogy: Complement Fixation Test
  • Culture of Vesicular Fluid: VZV is difficult to culture.

V. Prevention and Control of Chickenpox:

1. Notification:

Chickenpox is a locally notifiable disease.

2. Isolation:

The patient is infectious in early first week. During this period isolation of the patient is necessary.

3. Disinfection:

All the contaminated articles soiled by discharges from nose, throat, and skin lesions should be disinfected by boiling.

4. Immunization against chickenpox:

A. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION

It is done with human varicella zoster immunoglobulin. This should be given for prophylaxis to immunosuppressed patients, neonates, and pregnant women who have no antibody to VZV and have had significant contact with chickenpox.

B. ACTIE IMMUNIZATION

It is now available with a live attenauted vaccie.

VI. Treatment of Chickenpox:

In the majority of patients (healthy children) no specific treatment is required for chickenpox.
However the following treatment plan is indicated in special cases:

1. Antiviral therapy

Aciclovir is indicated for:
  • the immunodeficient or immunocompromised (10mg/kg 8 hourly by intravenous infusion).
  • the adults and older adolescents (over 16 years of age by oral or intravenous infusion).

2. Local antiseptics:

Chlorhexidine is applied to the skin if there is secondary bacterial infection (due to itching).

3. Antibiotic therapy:

An antibiotic such as Flucoxacillin 500 mg 6 hourly is prescribed if secondary infection progresses.

4. Other symptomatic treatment

Such as analgesics, antipyretics and antipuritics are given.

VII. Complications immuomplications of chickenpox:

A. Viral effects:

  1. Pneumonitis (usually adults or immunosuppressed)
  2. Diffuse encephalitis (within first week)
  3. Cerebellar syndrome (in second week)
  4. Trannsverse myelitis, optic neuritis
  5. Myocarditis (usually in adults or immunosuppressed)
  6. Glomerulonephritis

B. Secondary Bacterial Infection:

  1. Skin
  2. Septicaemia
  3. Osteomylitis
  4. Septic arthritis

C. Intrauterine Infection:

  1. Congenital limb defects (varicella embryopathy - rare)

Treatment of acid peptic disease:
What is Acid Peptic disease?

It's a disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is caused by an imbalance between the gastric hydrochloric acid and the protective mucous layer of the gastrointestinal tract.

Acid peptic disease, if untreated could be fatal due to erosion of gastrointestinal tract, leading to tissue damage, rupture of blood vessels and many more complications. But it is very much treatable and can be controlled effectively with mordern medication with very few side effects!

Diarrhea

Gastroenterologists define diarrhea as passage of more than 200g of stool daily. But this definition usually applies for acute diarrhea. In chronic diarrhea the amount of stool passed may be less than 200 g.

Types:

There are mainly two types of diarrheas:
1. Acute diarrhea
2. Chronic / Relapsing Diarrhea.

By now, most people realize that adding lean muscle mass to your body does wonders for your metabolism and fat loss, as well as a host of other benefits that allow you to live out your life as healthy as possible.

Unfortunately, most people I see performing weight training or resistance training at the gym are spending too much time with the exercise and not working hard enough.  They're not going to burn very much fat this way. 

The secret I’ve found is that training for lean muscle and strength requires the proper application of three vital elements that are often ignored by those who attempt it.  Those three elements are:
-Intensity
-Volume & Frequency
-Progression


Thursday, January 26, 2012

  1. Mouthwash: Use this at your peril! The majority of mouthwashes contain very high levels of alcohol which actually WORSENS bad breath!
  2. Breath mints and sprays: A pleasing smelling mouth doesn't necessarily mean that you have a healthy mouth. Mints and spray temporarily mask your bad breath, but provide a veritable feast for bad bacteria that will significantly worsen the problem.
  3. Chewing gum: Chewing gum does increase salivary juice flow, but only masks bad breath. Try drinking water throughout the day instead, which keeps you in good health as well.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

We all use it every single day but very few of us realize how important this organ actually is. I guess we more or less could figure out the basic importance of the tongue on our own. So what I'll tell you about is the surgical importance of the tongue.

Friday, January 13, 2012























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Saturday, January 7, 2012

Hi Everyone,

I have published my first eBook called "Diabetes- Know it to Defeat it".






It contains 48 pages of information on various aspects of diabetes.

The current price of the ebook is just $2.00!
You can purchase it from LuLu.com. Support independent publishing: Buy this e-book on Lulu.


Alternatively You can purchase this book from Smashwords.com at a discount price of $1.00. Yes, I'm giving 50% off this book if you purchase it from smashwords! The Coupon Code is   JT84K (not case-sensitive) and it Expires on: 5th April, 2013. So hurry up and buy now!

Let me know whether you found it useful or not.:)

Thursday, January 5, 2012




Normal flora - The microorganisms that normally live on and within you

Normal flora means all the microbes, either bacteria or fungi that are the permanent resident of certain parts of our body.

They are mostly found in the skin, oropharynx, colon, and vagina.

Viruses and parasites are not considered part of the normal flora but they may be present in asymptomatic patient.

Wednesday, January 4, 2012

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes, or high blood sugar, that only pregnant women get.

In fact, the word gestational means pregnant. If a woman gets high blood sugar when she’s pregnant, but she never had high blood sugar before, she has gestational diabetes.

Nearly 200,000 pregnant women get the condition every year, making it one of the top health concerns related to pregnancy.

If not treated, gestational diabetes can cause problems for mothers and babies. Some of these problems can be serious.


High blood glucose levels before and during pregnancy can:


  1. Worsen your long-term diabetes complications, such as vision problems, heart disease, and kidney disease
  2. Increase the chance of problems for your baby, such as being born too early, weighing too much or too little, and having low blood glucose or other health problems at birth
  3. Increase the risk of your baby having birth defects
  4. Increase the risk of losing your baby through miscarriage or stillbirth

When the kidneys are working well, the tiny filters in your kidneys, the glomeruli, keep protein inside your body. You body needs the protein to stay healthy.


The glomeruli also help to clean the blood from toxic subsstances. When kidneys are healthy, the artery brings blood and wastes from the bloodstream into the kidneys. The glomeruli then filters the toxic waste products and extra fluid which are then passed out of the body through urine.


High blood glucose and high blood pressure damage the kidneys’ filters. When the kidneys are damaged, the protein leaks out of the kidneys into the urine. Damaged kidneys do not do a good job of cleaning out wastes and extra fluid. Wastes and fluid build up in your blood instead of leaving the body in urine.

Insulin resistance is a silent condition that increases the chances of developing diabetes and heart disease. Your body basically stops responding to insulin.

Pancreas: The production factory of Insulin
Pancreas: The production factory of Insulin

What does insulin do?

After you eat, the food is broken down into glucose, the simple sugar that is the main source of energy for the body's cells. But your cells cannot use glucose without insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

Insulin helps the cells take in glucose and convert it to energy.

When the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use the insulin that is present, the cells cannot use glucose. Excess glucose builds up in the bloodstream, setting the stage for diabetes.

Tuesday, January 3, 2012


Tooth and gum problems can happen to anyone. A sticky film full of germs, called plaque, builds up on your teeth.

High blood glucose helps germs, also called bacteria, grow. Then you can get red, sore, and swollen gums that bleed when you brush your teeth.

Monday, January 2, 2012





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