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Monday, October 3, 2011

Vomiting - Definition, Causes of vomiting

What is Nausea and vomiting?

Nausea is the sensation of feeling sick. 

Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of gastric content via the mouth. It is a complex reflex mechanism which involves both autonomic and somatic neural pathways. 

Both nausea and vomiting are associated with pallor, sweating and hyperventilation.


Causes of vomiting:

Causes of vomiting
Causes of vomiting
1. Alimentary:
Gastroenteritis, eg food poisoning, bacterial/viral/protozoal infection
Peptic ulcer disease
Gastric carcinoma
Gastroparesis
Gastrointestinal obstruction eg Gastric outlet obstruction.
Dysmotility
2. Non-alimentary causes:
Neurological / CNS disorders:
Raised intracranial pressure, eg meningitis, brain tumor
Migraine
Vestibular dysfunction, eg motion sickness
Vasovagal syncope, shock, fear and severe pain, eg renal colic, myocardial infraction
Labrynthitis
Meinere’s disease
3. Drugs
Alcohol
NSAIDs – Non steroidal anti-inflammatory durgs eg aspirin
Opioids
Theophyllines
Digoxin
Antibiotics
Cytotoxic drugs eg cisplatin
Antidepressants
Any other drug
4. Infections:
Hepatitis
Cholecystitis
Pancreatitis
UTI – urinary tract infection
5. Metabolic / Endocrine:
Pregnancy
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Renal failure
Liver failure
Hypercalcaemia
Addison’s disease
Cyclical vomiting syndrome
6. Psychological
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia









Reference: The following books were used in the making of the above article:





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