1. Peptic ulcer disease(both gastric and duodenal)
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease
3. Stress related mucosal injury
Before we discuss how these diseases occur, let's look at the related aggresive and defensive factor associated.
The aggresive factors that tend to damage the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract(GIT) are:
1. Acid(Hydrochloric Acid)
And the factors which protect the mucosal surface against the aggresive factors are:
4. Blood flow
5. Cell repair mechanism
All the acid peptic diseases occur when the aggresive factors overwhelm the defensive factors, eventually leading to mucosal erosion or ulceration.
Over 90% of peptic ulcers are caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or by use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Drugs used in the treatment of acid-peptic disorders may be divided into two classes: agents that reduce intragastric acidity and agents that promote mucosal defense.